This is the stage whereby spaces for access as well as ventilation and lighting are furnished with appropriate closers. These spaces include the following:
· Windows: These are mainly meant to provide the building with light although it is common practice to provide them with permanent ventilation openings. Most windows are made of steel casements or timber although aluminium and UPVC is quickly getting recognition. These make up the frame, while the infill is commonly done in glazing. Glazing varies in with specification of width, toughness, finishing, clarity et cetera.
These are fixed onto the casements using beading like putty or rubber. Special glass is available for special cases, for example stained glass, obscure glass, toughened glass, bullet-proof and double glass. Window furniture include stays (used to limit the extent of opening) and fasteners (Used to close windows from inside). Windows are also designed to meet specific needs, for example top hung opening, sliding, dormer, et cetera. Widows are mostly fixed onto the wall using lugs in case of steel casement windows or screws and nails for the other types.
· Doors: These are mainly used to provide access to the building, with secondary purposes like security. External doors are usually considered to provide more security while internal doors provide more privacy. Doors are usually made of timber, steel, aluminium or even UPVC. A door comprises of a frame, leaf and finishes in the form of beadings and architraves. Door furniture include Hinges to provide swing, locks to provide security and closers and stoppers. Common types of doors include:
– Panel Doors: Usually made of solid timber with finish in the form of panels and usually in natural wood finish. These are most common for external shutters owing to their high security quality.
– Flush doors: Usually for internal shutters and categorized in the manner of construction and hence strength, for example solid, hollow and semi solid core.
– Steel casement doors: Used where high security is required. They are usually provided with a glazed panel fro lighting, referred to as fanlight.
Doors and widows are fixed in stages, with the frame coming first, then the leaf and finally the glazing. Painting is also a common finishing for these shutters. While the finishing coat of paint is done once they are fixed, a primer or protective coat is done before they are fixed onto the opening. Timber doors are usually nailed or screwed onto the wall (referred to as jamb for the vertical sides and reveal for the horizontal head) while steel doors are fixed used lugs, usually welded onto the frame.